Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a disorder in which plaque accumulates in the arteries of the heart. Coronary arteries are blood vessels that give oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. Plaque is a material found in the blood that is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances. Plaque constricts arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle. It also increases the risk of blood clots forming in your arteries. Blood clots can obstruct blood flow partially or completely. The heart muscle cannot receive oxygen-rich blood if the coronary arteries are constricted or obstructed. Angina or a heart attack may result as a result of this. A heart attack can cause major issues and possibly death if not treated quickly.
Angina is the most common symptom of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), which is pain produced by a lack of oxygen and nutrients reaching the myocardial tissue due to insufficient coronary blood flow. CAD symptoms are produced by substantial atherosclerosis in the majority of individuals who arrive with angina, but not all. Under the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina is occasionally lumped together with MI.
Stable angina: is caused by exertion, lasts a short time, and is readily relieved; unstable angina is caused by exertion, lasts a long time, and is difficult to relieve; and unstable angina is caused:
Unstable: pain that lasts longer, is more severe, and isn’t alleviated by rest or nitroglycerin; it could also be a new onset of pain with exercise or a recent increase in pain severity.
Chest pain at rest with ECG alterations caused by coronary artery spasms is a variation.
Nursing Care Plan for Coronary Artery Disease
The most frequent type of heart illness is coronary artery disease (CAD). In most people, lifestyle adjustments, medications, and/or medical treatments can effectively prevent or treat CAD. Atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, arterial hardening, heart disease, ischemic heart disease, and artery narrowing are all terms used to describe coronary artery disease.
Home remedies and a healthy lifestyle
Certain lifestyle adjustments are a part of the Nursing Care plan for coronary artery disease. These plans help maintain arteries healthy and prevent or reduce the progression of coronary artery disease. Take a look at these heart-healthy suggestions:
- Please don’t smoke. Coronary artery disease is caused by smoking, which is a primary risk factor. Nicotine constricts blood arteries, making the heart work harder. One of the most effective strategies to reduce the risk of a heart attack is to quit smoking.
- Maintain a healthy blood pressure level. Adults should have their blood pressure monitored at least every two years by a health care practitioner. If you have a history of high blood pressure, you may need more frequent checks. Consult your doctor to determine the optimum blood pressure target for you.
- Maintain a Healthy Cholesterol level. Adults should have a cholesterol test while they are in their twenties and every five years after that. Some people require more frequent examinations. Lower than 130 milligrammes per deciliter (mg/dL), or 3.4 millimoles per litre (mmol/L), is the ideal LDL cholesterol level. However, it is contingent on your overall health. If you have other heart disease risk factors, your target LDL cholesterol level may be less than 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L). Inquire with your doctor about your cholesterol levels.
- Examine your blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, keeping your blood sugar under control can help lower your risk of heart disease.
- Consume foods that are good for your heart. Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts should all be consumed in large quantities. Saturated and trans fats should be avoided. Sugar and salt should be reduced. Eating one or two portions of fish every week may also help maintain your heart in good shape.
- Alcohol should be avoided or consumed in moderation. Consume alcohol in moderation if you wish to do so. That is up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men for healthy people.
- Get your feet moving. Exercise aids in weight loss and the Management of Diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure, all of which are risk factors for coronary artery disease. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes of strenuous aerobic activity per week, or a combination of both.
- Maintain a healthy body mass index (BMI). Overweight people are more likely to develop coronary artery disease. Losing even a small amount of weight can help reduce coronary heart disease risk factors.
- Inquire about cardiac rehabilitation services. If you’ve had heart surgery, your doctor may recommend a health-improvement programme that includes education, counselling, and exercise.
- Take care of your tension. Look for techniques to assist in the reduction of emotional stress. Stress can be reduced by increasing physical activity, practising mindfulness, and connecting with others through support groups.
- Vaccines are highly recommended. Each year, get a flu (influenza) vaccine.
- Medical checkups should be done on a regular basis. In the early stages of coronary artery disease, some of the key risk factors for coronary artery diseases, such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes, there are no symptoms. Early identification and treatment can help you keep your heart in better shape.
Complementary and alternative medicine
There are some alternatives to taking medicines that are a part of the Nursing Care Plan for Coronary Artery Disease. These are:
Omega-3 fatty Acids
Unsaturated fatty acids, such as omega-3, are a type of fatty acid. They are thought to be able to reduce inflammation throughout the body. Coronary artery disease has been linked to inflammation. The benefits and drawbacks of omega-3 fatty acids for heart disease are still being researched. Omega-3 fatty acids can be found in a variety of foods, including:
Fish and fish oil are both good for you. The most effective sources of omega-3 fatty acids are fish and fish oil. Fatty fish, such as salmon, herring, and light canned tuna, have the highest levels of omega-3 fatty acids and hence provide the greatest benefit. Fish oil supplements may be beneficial, but the evidence for eating fish is greatest.
Flaxseed and flaxseed oil are two types of flax. An alpha-linolenic acid is a form of omega-3 fatty acid found in flax and flaxseed oil (ALA). ALA has a lower concentration of omega-3 fatty acids than fish and fish oil. ALA may aid in the reduction of cholesterol and the improvement of heart health. However, the evidence is mixed. ALA hasn’t been found to be as effective as fish in some research. Flaxseed is also high in fibre, which has a variety of health benefits.
Oils from other sources Canola oil, soybeans, and soybean oil all contain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA).
Other supplements may aid in the reduction of blood pressure or cholesterol, both of which are risk factors for coronary artery disease. The following are a few that could be useful:
Psyllium is a fibre type. Oats, a form of fibre that contains beta-glucans and is found in oatmeal and whole oats, are a good source of fibre.
Sterols from plants (found in supplements and some margarine, such as Promise, Smart Balance and Benecol)
Before using any herbs, vitamins, or drugs that you don’t have a prescription for, talk to your doctor. Some medications and supplements can interact with other medications.